Liquidator ist die Bezeichnung für einen während und nach der Katastrophe von Tschernobyl an der Eindämmung des Unglücks Beschäftigten, um die ionisierende Strahlung zu „liquidieren“. Sie werden im Russischen auch „Tschernobylez“ genannt. Rund ' vorwiegend junge Soldaten wurden in den Jahren 19am zerstörten Reaktor von Tschernobyl als “Liquidatoren” eingesetzt, um das. Belarus und die Folgen von Tschernobyl Der Liquidator von Tschernobyl: "Die Beamten haben total versagt!" Hauptinhalt. Interview mit Juri.
Tschernobyl-Zeugen erinnern sichBelarus und die Folgen von Tschernobyl Der Liquidator von Tschernobyl: "Die Beamten haben total versagt!" Hauptinhalt. Interview mit Juri. Erinnerung an die „Liquidatoren“ von Tschernobyl„Ein menschlicher Wahnsinn“. Andreas Mühe im Gespräch mit Stephan Karkowsky. Beitrag. Das Denkmal erinnert an die Liquidatoren von Tschernobyl. Tschernobyl, auch heute noch Synonym für den unsichtbaren Schrecken, steht für eine nukleare.
Liquidator Tschernobyl Navigation menu VideoViele bezahlten mit ihrem Leben - Tschernobyl-Liquidatoren kämpfen um Anerkennung Doch heute brauchen sie uns nicht mehr Tokyo Ghoul Staffel 1 Folge 1 weder die Regierung noch das Verteidigungsministerium. Von bis wurden wir gebraucht, um die Ukraine vor dem unsichtbaren Feind der Strahlung zu retten. Nach drei Wochen wog ich nur noch 40 Kilogramm.
Walking Dead Staffel 5 Folge 9 Stream diesen DVD-Neuheiten wird Ihr Filmeabend Walking Dead Staffel 5 Folge 9 Stream Sicherheit zum vollen Erfolg: Finden Sie hier neue Filme und aktuelle Neuerscheinungen auf DVD. - Header MenüEs kam vor, dass an einem Fleck der Zeiger des Geigerzählers Zdf Livestream Biathlon ausschlug. Skip to main content. Zum Inhalt springen. The Seifuku Impact of the Chernobyl Disaster. Namespaces Article Talk. Der sollte die Strahlung messen, der wir während der Arbeit ausgesetzt waren. London: Glagoslav Publications. The Truth About Chernobyl Hardcover. O2 Hotline Nummer Dsl ich dachte, es handelte sich um einen harmlosen Störfall. Because of defective intelligence based Pure Country satellite imagery, it was thought that unit number three had also suffered a dire accident. Gefängnisausbruch Serie of them wore any protective gear. Die Ärzte stellten fest, dass ich nur noch ein Wrack war. The valves controlling it, however, were located in Zign Schuhe flooded corridor. Random House UK paperback (russisch: ликвида́тор, manchmal mit „Abwickler“ oder „Beseitiger“ eingedeutscht) ist die Bezeichnung für einen während und nach der Katastrophe von. Liquidator ist die Bezeichnung für einen während und nach der Katastrophe von Tschernobyl an der Eindämmung des Unglücks Beschäftigten, um die ionisierende Strahlung zu „liquidieren“. Sie werden im Russischen auch „Tschernobylez“ genannt. Erinnerung an die „Liquidatoren“ von Tschernobyl„Ein menschlicher Wahnsinn“. Andreas Mühe im Gespräch mit Stephan Karkowsky. Beitrag. Liquidatoren in Tschernobyl. "Beim nächsten Unglück werden sie wieder nach uns rufen - die Menschen, die man so leicht täuschen kann", schreibt Anton.
Bevor wir an einer Stelle anfingen zu arbeiten, haben wir die Strahlung gemessen. Es kam vor, dass an einem Fleck der Zeiger des Geigerzählers voll ausschlug.
Fünf Meter weiter jedoch war die Strahlung nur gering. Das konnte den Unterschied zwischen Leben und Tod ausmachen. Die Overalls haben wir viermal am Tag gewechselt und zusammen mit dem radioaktiven Müll in der Erde vergraben.
An den Blaumännern war auch ein kleiner Chip angebracht. Der sollte die Strahlung messen, der wir während der Arbeit ausgesetzt waren. Er wurde jedoch nur selten ausgewertet.
Auch der Mundschutz war eine Farce. Mit ihm konnte ich nicht arbeiten, konnte keine Kommandos geben. Am Ende habe ich die Maske nur etwa eine halbe Stunde am Tag tragen können.
Nach der Arbeit sind wir immer zu einer Reinigungsstelle gefahren. Dort wurden unsere Strahlenwerte gemessen. Dann ging es unter die Dusche, um die Radioaktivität abzuwaschen.
Gleich am ersten Tag war mir etwas Merkwürdiges aufgefallen: Etwa fünf Kilometer vom Reaktor entfernt stand eine Baracke - das war die Kantine für die Liquidatoren.
Für Sowjetstandards gab es dort eine gewaltige Auswahl an Essen. Dort wurden Unmengen an Fleisch und sogar Ananas aufgetischt, die es in der Sowjetunion nur selten gab.
Die Arbeiter verschlangen riesige Portionen - mehrmals am Tag. Später wusste ich wieso. Schon eine Stunde nach dem Frühstück hatte ich das Gefühl, überhaupt nichts gegessen zu haben.
Dieser ständige Hunger war schrecklich. Ein Arzt erklärte mir später, den Grund dafür: Die Strahlung hatte mein Knochenmark angegriffen, so dass der Körper nicht mehr genug rote Blutkörperchen produzierte.
Um den Verlust auszugleichen, benötigt der Mensch mehr Energie als gewöhnlich. Für jede Einsatzgruppe stand ein Ärzteteam bereit.
Alle drei Tage wurde mir eine Blutprobe entnommen. Meine Ergebnisse müssen in einem den Umständen entsprechend akzeptablen Bereich gelegen haben.
Denn hätten die Ärzte festgestellt, dass mein Körper zu wenige rote Blutkörperchen produziert, hätte ich nicht weiterarbeiten dürfen. Nach zehn Tagen habe ich plötzlich meine Stimme verloren, ich konnte keinen Ton mehr von mir geben.
Die Ärzte sagten, dass der radioaktive Graphitstaub meine Stimmbänder angegriffen habe. Ich hatte ja die meiste Zeit ohne Mundschutz gearbeitet.
Sie verordneten mir Knoblauch und Zitrone, weil der Körper dadurch mit Vitamin C versorgt werde. Tatsächlich konnte ich nach ein paar Tagen wieder reden.
Sieben weitere Tage habe ich geschuftet, dann konnte ich endlich zu meiner Familie zurück. Zu Hause war ich so kaputt, dass ich erst mal drei Tage durchschlief.
Doch das Schlimmste sollte mir noch bevorstehen. Retrieved May 8, The Irish Times. Why estimates differ by tens of thousands of deaths".
Our World in Data. We don't really know Article updated May 7, ". New Scientist. Psychological Medicine. Chernobyl disaster. Comparison with other radioactivity releases Comparison with Fukushima Cultural impact Deaths Elephant's Foot Groundwater contamination TORCH report.
Aleksandr Akimov Anatoly Dyatlov Vasily Ignatenko Valery Khodemchuk Valery Legasov Mykola Melnyk Vassili Nesterenko Vladimir Pikalov Volodymyr Pravyk Nikolai Tarakanov Leonid Telyatnikov Leonid Toptunov.
Exclusion Zone Chernihiv—Ovruch railway Chernobyl power plant Kopachi Opachychi Poliske Red Forest Tarasy Velyki Klishchi Vilcha Yaniv Polesie Reserve Aravichy Dzernavichy Pripyat amusement park Azure swimming pool Avanhard stadium FC Stroitel Energetik cultural palace Jupiter factory Polissya hotel Slavutych.
Chernobyl Children International Children of Chernobyl Benefit Concert Chernobyl Forum Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme Chernobyl Shelter Fund Friends of Chernobyl's Children State Institution for Radiation Monitoring and Radiation Safety.
Chernobyl miniseries Chernobyl liquidators Chernobyl necklace Chernobylite Sarcophagus New Safe Confinement Samosely National Chernobyl Museum. Categories : Chernobyl liquidators Radiation health effects.
Hidden categories: Articles with Ukrainian-language sources uk Articles with Russian-language sources ru Webarchive template wayback links CS1 French-language sources fr CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references Articles containing Ukrainian-language text Articles containing Belarusian-language text Articles containing Russian-language text All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Commons category link is on Wikidata.
Similar sponsored items. Badge Zeichen "70 Jahre Cheka-KGB" UdSSR russische Militär ORDEN MEDAILLE.
Kutusoworden Erste Klasse UdSSR russische Militär ORDEN MEDAILLE replica. Medaille fur die Rettung der ertrinkenden UdSSR Russische Sowjetische Kopie.
Medaille des MiA der UdSSR fur den einwandfreien Dienst 2 Klasse Kopie. Medaille fur den einwandfreien Dienst in den Streitkraften der UdSSR 3 Klasse.
Medaille fur den Unterschied im Militardienst 1 Klasse UdSSR Russische Kopie. Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.
Item specifics Condition: New: A brand-new, unused, unopened and undamaged item. See the seller's listing for full details. See all condition definitions — opens in a new window or tab.
Tschernobyl Liquidator. Artikelzustand: Neu. Alle Fotos sind aktuell, also kaufst du was auf den Fotos zu sehen. Live Motion Games.
Live Motion Games , PlayWay S. Popular user-defined tags for this product:. Sign In or Open in Steam. Title: Chernobyl Liquidators Simulator Genre: Simulation Developer: Live Motion Games.
Publisher: Live Motion Games , PlayWay S. Franchise: Live Motion Games , PlayWay S. Live Motion Games on Twitter Live Motion Games on YouTube View update history Read related news View discussions Find Community Groups.
Share Embed. This game is not yet available on Steam Planned Release Date: Wishlist now - discount at launch. The two primary individuals involved with the attempt to suggest that the mutation rate among animals was, and continues to be, higher in the Chernobyl zone, are the Anders Moller and Timothy Mousseau group.
In , geneticist colleagues Ronald Chesser and Robert Baker published a paper on the thriving vole population within the exclusion zone, in which the central conclusion of their work was essentially that "The mutation rate in these animals is hundreds and probably thousands of times greater than normal".
This claim occurred after they had done a comparison of the mitochondrial DNA of the "Chernobyl voles" with that of a control group of voles from outside the region.
Following the accident, journalists mistrusted many medical professionals such as the spokesman from the UK National Radiological Protection Board , and in turn encouraged the public to mistrust them.
In Greece, following the accident, many obstetricians were unable to resist requests from worried pregnant mothers over fears of radiation.
Worldwide, an estimated excess of about , elective abortions may have been performed on otherwise healthy pregnancies out of fears of radiation from Chernobyl, according to Robert Baker and ultimately a article published by Linda E.
Ketchum in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine which mentions but does not reference an IAEA source on the matter. The available statistical data excludes the Soviet—Ukraine—Belarus abortion rates, as they are presently unavailable.
From the available data, an increase in the number of abortions in what were healthy developing human offspring in Denmark occurred in the months following the accident, at a rate of about cases.
As no Chernobyl impacts were detected, the researchers conclude "in retrospect, the widespread fear in the population about the possible effects of exposure on the unborn fetus was not justified".
In very high doses , it was known at the time that radiation could cause a physiological increase in the rate of pregnancy anomalies, but unlike the dominant linear no-threshold model of radiation and cancer rate increases, it was known, by researchers familiar with both the prior human exposure data and animal testing, that the "Malformation of organs appears to be a deterministic effect with a threshold dose " below which, no rate increase is observed.
When the vast amount of pregnancy data does not support this perception as no women took part in the most radioactive liquidator operations, no in-utero individuals would have been expected to have received a threshold dose.
These findings may be due to confounding factors or random chance; however, it is also possible that the doses received by the children were larger than initially believed.
The Chernobyl liquidators , essentially an all-male civil defense emergency workforce, would go on to father normal children, without an increase in developmental anomalies or a statistically significant increase in the frequencies of germline mutations in their progeny.
A report by the International Atomic Energy Agency examines the environmental consequences of the accident. Estimates of the number of deaths that will eventually result from the accident vary enormously; disparities reflect both the lack of solid scientific data and the different methodologies used to quantify mortality—whether the discussion is confined to specific geographical areas or extends worldwide, and whether the deaths are immediate, short term, or long term.
In , thirty-one deaths were directly attributed to the accident , all among the reactor staff and emergency workers.
In a peer-reviewed paper in the International Journal of Cancer in , the authors expanded the discussion on those exposed to all of Europe but following a different conclusion methodology to the Chernobyl Forum study, which arrived at the total predicted death toll of 4, after cancer survival rates were factored in they stated, without entering into a discussion on deaths, that in terms of total excess cancers attributed to the accident: .
The risk projections suggest that by now  Chernobyl may have caused about cases of thyroid cancer and cases of other cancers in Europe, representing about 0.
Models predict that by about 16, cases of thyroid cancer and 25, cases of other cancers may be expected due to radiation from the accident, whereas several hundred million cancer cases are expected from other causes.
Two anti-nuclear advocacy groups have publicized non-peer-reviewed estimates that include mortality estimates for those who were exposed to even smaller amounts of radiation.
Yet the death rate from thyroid cancer has remained the same as prior to the technology. This is due to the ingestion of contaminated dairy products, along with the inhalation of the short-lived, highly radioactive isotope, Iodine It is important to note that there was no evidence of an increase in solid cancers or leukemia.
It said that there was an increase in psychological problems among the affected population. According to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, up to the year , an excess of more than 6, cases of thyroid cancer had been reported.
That is, over the estimated pre-accident baseline thyroid cancer rate, more than 6, casual cases of thyroid cancer have been reported in children and adolescents exposed at the time of the accident, a number that is expected to increase.
They concluded that there is no other evidence of major health impacts from the radiation exposure. The report went into depth about the risks to mental health of exaggerated fears about the effects of radiation.
The IAEA says that this may have led to behaviour that has caused further health effects. Fred Mettler commented that 20 years later: "The population remains largely unsure of what the effects of radiation actually are and retain a sense of foreboding.
A number of adolescents and young adults who have been exposed to modest or small amounts of radiation feel that they are somehow fatally flawed and there is no downside to using illicit drugs or having unprotected sex.
To reverse such attitudes and behaviours will likely take years, although some youth groups have begun programs that have promise. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR , part of the Chernobyl Forum, have produced their own assessments of the radiation effects.
The number of potential deaths arising from the Chernobyl disaster is heavily debated. The World Health Organization 's prediction of 4, future cancer deaths in surrounding countries  is based on the Linear no-threshold model LNT , which assumes that the damage inflicted by radiation at low doses is directly proportional to the dose.
According to the Union of Concerned Scientists the number of excess cancer deaths worldwide including all contaminated areas is approximately 27, based on the same LNT.
Another study critical of the Chernobyl Forum report was commissioned by Greenpeace, which asserted that the most recently published figures indicate that in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine the accident could have resulted in 10,—, additional deaths in the period between and Although most of the study's sources were from peer-reviewed journals, including many Western medical journals, the higher mortality estimates were from non-peer-reviewed sources,  while Gregory Härtl spokesman for the WHO suggested that the conclusions were motivated by ideology.
Balonov from the Institute of Radiation Hygiene in St. Petersburg, who described them as biased, drawing from sources that were difficult to independently verify and lacking a proper scientific base.
Balanov expressed his opinion that "the authors unfortunately did not appropriately analyze the content of the Russian-language publications, for example, to separate them into those that contain scientific evidence and those based on hasty impressions and ignorant conclusions".
According to U. Nuclear Regulatory Commission member and Professor of Health Physics Kenneth Mossman,  the "LNT philosophy is overly conservative, and low-level radiation may be less dangerous than commonly believed.
Another significant issue is establishing consistent data on which to base the analysis of the impact of the Chernobyl accident. Since , large social and political changes have occurred within the affected regions and these changes have had significant impact on the administration of health care, on socio-economic stability, and the manner in which statistical data is collected.
It is difficult to establish the total economic cost of the disaster. While much of this has been returned to use, agricultural production costs have risen due to the need for special cultivation techniques, fertilizers and additives.
Many Ukrainians viewed the Chernobyl disaster as another attempt by Russians to destroy them, comparable to the Holodomor. Following the accident, questions arose about the future of the plant and its eventual fate.
All work on the unfinished reactors No. However, the trouble at the Chernobyl plant did not end with the disaster in reactor No.
The Ukrainian government allowed the three remaining reactors to continue operating because of an energy shortage in the country.
In October , a fire broke out in the turbine building of reactor No. On 15 December , then-President Leonid Kuchma personally turned off reactor No.
Soon after the accident, the reactor building was quickly encased by a mammoth concrete sarcophagus in a notable feat of construction under severe conditions.
Crane operators worked blindly from inside lead-lined cabins taking instructions from distant radio observers, while gargantuan-sized pieces of concrete were moved to the site on custom-made vehicles.
The purpose of the sarcophagus was to stop any further release of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, mitigate damage should the core go critical and explode, and provide safety for the continued operations of adjacent reactors one through three.
At first it was assumed that the roof collapsed because of the weight of snow, however the amount of snow was not exceptional, and the report of a Ukrainian fact-finding panel concluded that the collapse was the result of sloppy repair work and aging of the structure.
Experts warned the sarcophagus itself was on the verge of collapse. In , the international Chernobyl Shelter Fund was founded to design and build a more permanent cover for the unstable and short-lived sarcophagus.
The new shelter was named the New Safe Confinement and construction began in The New Safe Confinement was completed in and slid into place over top the sarcophagus on 29 November.
Used fuel from units 1—3 was stored in the units' cooling ponds, and in an interim spent fuel storage facility pond, ISF-1, which now holds most of the spent fuel from units 1—3, allowing those reactors to be decommissioned under less restrictive conditions.
Approximately 50 of the fuel assemblies from units 1 and 2 were damaged and required special handling. Fuel transfers to ISF-1 were completed in June A need for larger, longer-term radioactive waste management at the Chernobyl site is to be fulfilled by a new facility designated ISF This facility is to serve as dry storage for used fuel assemblies from units 1—3 and other operational wastes, as well as material from decommissioning units 1—3 which will be the first RBMK units decommissioned anywhere.
A contract was signed in with Areva NP now Framatome for construction of ISF In , after a significant part of the storage structures had been built, technical deficiencies in the design concept became apparent.
In , Areva withdrew and Holtec International was contracted for a new design and construction of ISF The new design was approved in , work started in , and construction was completed in August ISF-2 is the world's largest nuclear fuel storage facility, expected to hold more than 21, fuel assemblies for at least years.
The project includes a processing facility able to cut the RBMK fuel assemblies and to place the material in canisters, to be filled with inert gas and welded shut.
The canisters are then to be transported to dry storage vaults , where the fuel containers will be enclosed for up to years. Expected processing capacity is 2, fuel assemblies per year.
The radioactive material consists of core fragments, dust, and lava-like "fuel containing materials" FCM —also called " corium "—that flowed through the wrecked reactor building before hardening into a ceramic form.
Three different lavas are present in the basement of the reactor building: black, brown, and a porous ceramic. The lava materials are silicate glasses with inclusions of other materials within them.
The porous lava is brown lava that dropped into water and thus cooled rapidly. It is unclear how long the ceramic form will retard the release of radioactivity.
From to , a series of published papers suggested that the self-irradiation of the lava would convert all 1, tonnes 1, long tons; 1, short tons into a submicrometre and mobile powder within a few weeks.
It has been reported that the degradation of the lava is likely to be a slow, gradual process, rather than sudden and rapid.
Even today, radiation levels are so high that the workers responsible for rebuilding the sarcophagus are only allowed to work five hours a day for one month before taking 15 days of rest.
In , Ukraine opened up the sealed zone around the Chernobyl reactor to tourists who wish to learn more about the tragedy that occurred in During the dry seasons, a perennial concern is forests that have been contaminated by radioactive material catching on fire.
The dry conditions and build-up of debris make the forests a ripe breeding ground for wildfires. In April , forest fires spread through the exclusion zone reaching over 20, ha and caused an increase of radiation resulting from release of caesium and strontium from the ground and biomass at levels that were detectable by the monitoring network but did not pose any threat to human health.
An average resident of Kyiv the dose estimated as result of the fires was 1 nSv. The Chernobyl Trust Fund was created in by the United Nations to help victims of the Chernobyl accident.
The Chernobyl Shelter Fund was established in at the Denver 23rd G8 summit to finance the Shelter Implementation Plan SIP. The plan calls for transforming the site into an ecologically safe condition by means of stabilization of the sarcophagus followed by construction of a New Safe Confinement NSC.
The NSC was moved into position in November and is expected to be completed in late In , the United Nations Development Programme launched the Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme CRDP for the recovery of the affected areas.
The main goal of the CRDP's activities is supporting the Government of Ukraine in mitigating long-term social, economic, and ecological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe.
CRDP works in the four most Chernobyl-affected areas in Ukraine: Kyivska , Zhytomyrska , Chernihivska and Rivnenska.
These funds were divided among Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, the three main affected countries, for further investigation of health effects.
As there was significant corruption in former Soviet countries, most of the foreign aid was given to Russia, and no positive outcome from this money has been demonstrated.
In , it became known that the then-current Ukrainian government aimed to make Chernobyl a tourist attraction. The Chernobyl accident attracted a great deal of interest.
Because of the distrust that many people [ who? Because of defective intelligence based on satellite imagery, it was thought that unit number three had also suffered a dire accident.
The accident also raised concerns about the cavalier safety culture in the Soviet nuclear power industry, slowing industry growth and forcing the Soviet government to become less secretive about its procedures.
In Italy, the Chernobyl accident was reflected in the outcome of the referendum. As a result of that referendum, Italy began phasing out its nuclear power plants in , a decision that was effectively reversed in A referendum reiterated Italians' strong objections to nuclear power, thus abrogating the government's decision of In Germany, the Chernobyl accident led to the creation of a federal environment ministry, after several states had already created such a post.
The minister was given the authority over reactor safety as well, which the current minister still holds as of [update]. The events are also credited with strengthening the anti-nuclear movement in Germany , which culminated in the decision to end the use of nuclear power that was made by the — Schröder government.
In direct response to the Chernobyl disaster, a conference to create a Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident was called in by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
The resulting treaty has bound signatory member states to provide notification of any nuclear and radiation accidents that occur within its jurisdiction that could affect other states, along with the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.
The Chernobyl, along with the space shuttle Challenger disaster , the Three Mile Island accident , and the Bhopal disaster have been used together as case studies, both by the US government and by third parties, in research concerning the root causes of such disasters, such as sleep deprivation  and mismanagement.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Pripyat evacuation broadcast. Main article: Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant sarcophagus.
Main article: Individual involvement in the Chernobyl disaster. Main article: Effects of the Chernobyl disaster. Adults, ages 19 to Adolescents, ages 15 to Children, ages up to Further information: Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant sarcophagus.
Further information: Chernobyl New Safe Confinement. Further information: Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.
See also: Polesie State Radioecological Reserve. Main articles: Nuclear power debate , nuclear power phase-out , and anti-nuclear movement.
According to the General Atomics website:  "It is often incorrectly assumed that the combustion behavior of graphite is similar to that of charcoal and coal.
Numerous tests and calculations have shown that it is virtually impossible to burn high-purity, nuclear-grade graphites.
This is contrary to the often-cited interpretation, which is that the graphite was red-hot chiefly because it was chemically oxidizing with the air.
The confidence of readers was re-established only after the press was allowed to examine the events in detail without the original censorship restrictions.
The policy of openness glasnost and 'uncompromising criticism' of outmoded arrangements had been proclaimed at the 27th Congress of the Communist Party of Soviet Union , but it was only in the tragic days following the Chernobyl disaster that glasnost began to change from an official slogan into an everyday practice.
The truth about Chernobyl that eventually hit the newspapers opened the way to a more truthful examination of other social problems.
More and more articles were written about drug abuse, crime, corruption and the mistakes of leaders of various ranks.
A wave of 'bad news' swept over the readers in —87, shaking the consciousness of society. Many were horrified to find out about the numerous calamities of which they had previously had no idea.
It often seemed to people that there were many more outrages in the epoch of perestroika than before although, in fact, they had simply not been informed about them previously.
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. Electronic Resources Review. Archived PDF from the original on 20 October Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 15 August The Lancet.
Archived PDF from the original on 22 June Retrieved 3 June Butterworth Architecture. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Archived from the original PDF on 12 July Japanese Journal of Health Physics. Archived from the original on 28 April World Health Organization.
Archived PDF from the original on 17 April Retrieved 14 April Archived from the original on 25 February BMC Public Health. European Journal of Cancer.
Bibcode : Natur. Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 5 October BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 August Retrieved 20 August The battle of Chernobyl.
World Nuclear Association. June Archived from the original on 5 November International Atomic Energy Agency. May Archived PDF from the original on 28 March University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Archived from the original PDF on 14 May Retrieved 26 January United States Department of Energy. January Archived from the original PDF on 19 March United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 2 June Vengeance of the peaceful atom in Russian. Dnepropetrovsk: IKK "Balance Club".
Nuclear Fissionary. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 12 January Atomic Energy in Russian. Archived from the original on 11 August Physicians of Chernobyl Association in Russian.
Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 3 September The Truth About Chernobyl Hardcover. Retrieved 18 July